WAEC, JAMB UTME Subject for Biochemistry – Under Science

O Level & A Level Requirement – Subject Combination for Biochemistry – Under Science; including the List of Nigeria Universities Offering the Course, WAEC, NECO, GCE, JAMB UTME, Direct Entry, IJBM, JUPEB, CAMBRIDGE, NABTEB, Course Description and Career Opportunities 

 

Note
  • JAMB officially classified this course under Faculty/School/College of Science .
  • Probable Degree type – (B.Sc. & B. Tech)

 

The admission requirement to study Biochemistry – Under Science in Nigeria Universities includes one or a combination of ‘O’ level results or A-level result if you’re going through Direct Entry. This page will literally answer questions such as WAEC subject combination, JAMB UTME subject combination, Direct Entry requirements, Special consideration (waivers), where you can work with the degree and the required documents for admission into Nigeria universities. If you’re still having difficulties with getting admission in Nigeria Universities, we have some post that may be of benefit to you.

 

What is O level/WAEC subject combination (requirement) for Biochemistry?
The subjects needed to study Biochemistry in WAEC must contain five (5) credit. This subject combination is also applicable to NECO AND GCE… The O level requirement that is the compulsory WAEC subject combination for Biochemistry must include

  1. English Language
  2. Chemistry
  3. Mathematics
  4. Physics
  5. Biology
  6. A trade subject

 

What is JAMB UTME subject combination (subjects needed) for Biochemistry?
You should aim for a score of 180 – 200 and above in JAMB UTME to be on a safe side (Just an advice) because anything short of that may deny you of Admission/Post UTME. Of course, if you have a score below 180, you can consider College of Education or Polytechnic… Please note – JAMB is not the only option for admission. If you’re having troubles JAMB UTME maybe it’s time you pass through IJBM, JUBEB, ND or Predegree. JAMB UTME subject combination (subject to write in jamb) for Biochemistry are

  1. Biology
  2. Chemistry
  3. Physics
  4. Mathematics

 

What is Direct Entry requirement (that is the required A-level result you need) to study Biochemistry?
Two ‘A’ level passes chosen from Chemistry, Mathematics Physics and Biology.
NCE/ND/HND in related field plus UTME requirement.

 

Just a reminder: Everything you have read so far is a general requirement, it is expedient that you also check the special consideration for this course below. If for some reasons you are not satisfied or cannot meet up with the subject combination above, perhaps you should consider taking a look at Polytechnic or College of Education related course subject requirements. You can also study online with a foreign university right from your bedroom or apply for a scholarship to study abroad. Education is now a choice.

 

So now that you know the compulsory WAEC, JAMB subject combination for Biochemistry, (which is also applicable to NECO and GCE) as well as A-level result/certificate.
Before you make a decision on which University to choose, please consider

  • The Fees
  • The Distance
  • The Environment
  • The Degree Certificate
  • Vulnerability to Strike
  • Acceptable O Level and A-level Result
  • Academic Calendar

See useful guides on how to choose a course and university

List of Nigeria Universities offering Biochemistry are

  1. Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma
  2. Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba
  3. Abia State University, Uturu
  4. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
  5. Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti – Ekiti State
  6. Achievers University, Owo
  7. Ajayi Crowther University, Ibadan (ACU) Click to read conditions
  8. Al-Hikmah University, Ilorin
  9. Anchor University Ayobo Lagos State
  10. Arthur Javis University Akpoyubo Cross river State
  11. Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli
  12. Adeleke University Ede (AUE)
  13. Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo
  14. Bauchi State University, Gadau
  15. Federal University of Technology, Minna (with option in Food Science)
  16. Bayero University, Kano Click to read conditions
  17. Bells University of Technology, Otta
  18. University of Benin (UNIBEN)
  19. Nasarawa State University Keffi (NSUK) offers the course as Biochemistry and Molecular Biology)
  20. ECWA Bingham University, New Karu
  21. Benson Idahosa University, Benin City Click to read conditions
  22. Bowen University, Iwo
  23. Caleb University, Lagos
  24. Caritas University, Enugu
  25. Clifford University Owerrinta Abia State
  26. Coal City University Enugu State
  27. Covenant University Ota
  28. Crescent University (CUAB) Click to read conditions
  29. Chrisland University
  30. Crown Hill University Eiyenkorin, Kwara State
  31. Cross River State University of Science &Technology, Calabar (CRUTECH)
  32. Delta State University, Abraka (DELSU) Click to read conditions
  33. Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki Click to read conditions
  34. Edo University Iyamo
  35. Elizade University, Ilara-Mokin
  36. Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu (ESUT)
  37. Evangel University, Akaeze
  38. Gregory University, Uturu
  39. Gombe State University, Gombe
  40. Ekiti State University
  41. Eastern Palm University Ogboko, Imo State
  42. Federal University, Dutsin-Ma, Katsina
  43. Federal University Gashua, Yobe Umar Suleiman College of Education, Gashua
  44. Federal University, Gusau Zamfara (FUGUS)
  45. Federal University, Birnin Kebbi (FUBK)
  46. Federal University, Lafia, Nasarawa State (FULAFIA)
  47. Federal University, Lokoja, Kogi State (FULOKOJA)
  48. Federal University, Ndifu-Alike, Ebonyi State (FUNAI)
  49. Federal University, Otuoke, Bayelsa (FUOTUOKE) Click to read conditions
  50. Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State
  51. Federal University, Wukari, Taraba State (FUWUKARI)
  52. Fountain University, Oshogbo
  53. Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB) Click to read conditions
  54. Federal University of Technology, Akure Click to read conditions
  55. Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO)
  56. Godfrey Okoye University, Ugwuomu-Nike – Enugu State
  57. Hallmark University, Ijebi Itele, Ogun
  58. University of Ilorin (UNILORIN) Click to read conditions
  59. Imo State University, Owerri (IMSU)
  60. Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji
  61. Kaduna State University, Kaduna (KASU) Click to read conditions
  62. Kogi State University Anyigba
  63. Kebbi State University, Kebbi
  64. Kano University of Science & Technology, Wudil (KUST)
  65. University of Lagos (UNILAG)
  66. Landmark University, Omu-Aran
  67. Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai (IBBU)
  68. Lagos State University, Ojo (LASU) Click to read conditions
  69. Lead City University, Ibadan
  70. Madonna University, Okija
  71. Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola (MAUTY)
  72. Micheal & Cecilia Ibru University
  73. Mcpherson University, Seriki Sotayo, Ajebo
  74. University of Maiduguri (UNIMAID)
  75. University of Agriculture, Makurdi
  76. University of Mkar, Mkar
  77. Mountain Top University
  78. Niger Delta University Yenagoa (NDU)
  79. Northwest University Kano (NWU)
  80. Novena University, Ogume
  81. Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja
  82. Obafemi Awolowo University,Ile-Ife (OAU)
  83. Oduduwa University, Ipetumodu – Osun State
  84. ONONG
  85. Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago Iwoye
  86. Ondo State University of Science and Technology Okitipupa (OSUSTECH) Click to read conditions
  87. Paul University, Awka – Anambra State
  88. University of Port-Harcourt (UNIPORT)
  89. Plateau State University Bokkos (PLASU)
  90. Nigeria Police Academy Wudil Click to read conditions
  91. Redeemer’s University, Mowe
  92. Renaissance University, Enugu
  93. River State University of Science and Technology (RSUST)
  94. Salem University, Lokoja Click to read conditions
  95. Samuel Adegboyega University, Ogwa Click to read conditions
  96. Sokoto State University
  97. Southwestern University, Oku Owa
  98. Tansian University, Umunya
  99. Usumanu Danfodiyo University (UDUSOK)
  100. Michael Okpara University of Agricultural Umudike
  101. Umar Musa Yar’ Adua University Katsina (UMYU)
  102. Osun State University Osogbo (UNIOSUN)
  103. Kings University, Ode Omu (UNIKINGS)
  104. University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN)
  105. Veritas University, Abuja,
  106. Western Delta University, Oghara Delta State
  107. Wesley University of Science & Technology, Ondo
  108. Crawford University Igbesa
  109. Rhema University, Obeama-Asa – Rivers State
  110. Ekiti State University
  111. Kwara State University, Ilorin (KWASU)

it is good we take a look at the brief description Biochemistry to help you decide if this course is worth studying in Nigeria Universities. Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. biochemistry has become so successful at explaining living processes that now almost all areas of the life sciences from botany to medicine to genetics are engaged in biochemical research.

Today, the main focus of pure biochemistry is on understanding how biological molecules give rise to the processes that occur within living cells, which in turn relates greatly to the study and understanding of tissues, organs, and whole organisms that is, all of biology. Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology, the study of the molecular mechanisms by which genetic information encoded in DNA is able to result in the processes of life.

Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, functions and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids, which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life. The chemistry of the cell also depends on the reactions of smaller molecules and ions. These can be inorganic, for example, water and metal ions, or
organic, for example, the amino acids, which are used to synthesize proteins. The mechanisms by which cells harness energy from their environment via chemical reactions are known as metabolism.

If you wish to study Biochemistry, you will be exposed to the internal workings of chemical processes in relation to biological makeup of living organisms. It involves deep study of biology and chemistry, organic and inorganic chemistry, DNA AND RNA. A strong foundation in biology, chemistry and a little bit of physics is key to making it in this department.

Biochemistry is applied in different fields:
In medicine, biochemists investigate the causes and cures of diseases. In nutrition, they study how to maintain health wellness and study the effects of nutritional deficiencies.

The Role of Biochemistry in Industry
Biochemistry plays an important role in a wide variety of areas. Progress in this field has applications that span areas such as agriculture, the environment, medicine, cosmetics, and a variety of others. In fact, developments in biochemistry lead all the way to law and public policy. Thanks to biochemistry, we can screen unborn babies for disease, develop new medicines to treat and cure various diseases, protect crops from pests and disease, combat pollution, design products that are biocompatible and do many other things to make our food, bodies, and planet safer.

Where can I work with a Degree in Biochemistry? 
I believe you now know the subjects required to study Biochemistry. I urge you to also find out where you can work with the degree. Please take your time to read The Act of Getting a Job – so you would know what you’re up against after graduating.

Career opportunities are
• Agribusiness Companies: Developing safer and more effective agricultural products
• Hospital Laboratories: Analyzing samples from patients to provide treatment advice
• Pharmaceutical Companies: Developing drugs and other pharmaceutical products
• University Laboratories: Researching anything from gene therapy to disease treatments
• Cosmetic Companies: Creating safer and more effective products
• Food Product Development or Regulation Companies: Ensuring the safety of food

 

The SSCE O level and A-level subject needed to study Biochemistry have been listed above. Yet, some Universities may accept D7 or E8 in some a compulsory subject instead of Credit. And some may accept or reject two sittings. That is combinations of WAEC, NECO, or GCE results. You will know more when you take a look at the special consideration (waiver) for this course if available. Please take note that when you see Check, it simply means the special consideration for this course had been merge with a related course to save space. So it is advisable to click the link or search with the search bar.

Special Consideration
What is Direct Entry Special consideration (Waiver) to study Biochemistry?
(i) Federal University of Technology, Akure accepts ND at Upper Credit level in Relevant disciplines in addition to the ‘O’ level requirements.

(ii) ECWA Bingham University, New Karu, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola (MAUTY) and University of Ilorin (UNILORIN), Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO) require ‘A’ level in Chemistry and Biology.

(iii) Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli and River State University of Science and Technology (RSUST) accept a good ND (credit) in related fields.

(iv) Federal University of Technology, Minna, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli and Usumanu Danfodiyo University (UDUSOK) accept ND/HND with at least lower credit plus four ‘O’ level credit paases in relevant subjects.

(v) Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Kogi State University Anyigba, University of Port-Harcourt (UNIPORT), Abia State University, Uturu and Imo State University, Owerri (IMSU) No Direct Entry (vi) University of Benin (UNIBEN) does not accept Mathematics at ‘A’ level. In addition to UTME requirements accepts: (a) ND (Upper credit) / HND (Lower credit) in Food Technology or Science Laboratory Technology. (c) NCE (credit) in Biology or Chemistry.

(vii) Michael Okpara University of Agricultural Umudike requires A’ level pass in Chemistry and Biology/Botany/Zoology.

(viii) Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago Iwoye accepts ND/HND in relevant subjects plus UTME requirements.

(x) Ekiti State University – a minimum of ND (Upper Credit) from recognised institution.

(xi) Benson Idahosa University, Benin City and accept ND and NCE in relevant fields. (xii) Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma accepts 1st degree and 5 ‘O’ level credits in relevant subjects for Direct Entry”.

(xiii) University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN) accepts ‘A’ level/HSC at Principal level in Chemistry, Biology (Botany or Zoology) and Physics plus UTME requirement and Degree in relevant fields.

(xiv) AYAYI accepts two ‘A’ level passes (or equivalents) in Chemistry and Biology including the requirements in UTME.  (xv) Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki requires three A’ level passes in Biology, Chemistry and Mathematics or Physics.

(xvi) Crescent University (CUAB) accepts (i) at least two ‘A’ level passes in Chemistry and any one of Physics, Mathematics or Biology or (ii) IJMB at acceptable grades. (iii) NCE, ND, HND and approved equivalent with at least lower credit may be admitted to the appropriate level.

(xvii) Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli accepts ND/HND lower credit in Food Science Technology, Biology, Chemistry, Biogenetic Engineering or its equivalent.

(xviii) Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO) requires at least two ‘A’ Level passes not below Grade C in Chemistry and Biology. It accepts ND/HND (Upper Credit) in relevant fields. Candidates must in addition meet the UTME ‘O’ Level requirements. It does not accept First Degree and NCE. (xix) Bowen University, Iwo accepts ‘A’ Level /IJMB/NCE/ND or approved equivalent in Chemistry and either Mathematics or Physics.

(xx) Benson Idahosa University, Benin City requires in addition to the O’ level requirements specified, a minimum of two relevant subjects passed at GCE Advanced level or NCE (3 merits) or National Diploma in relevant field not below credit level.

(xxi) Wesley University of Science & Technology, Ondo accepts two “A” level passes in Chemistry and any one of Biology, Physics and Mathematics.

(xxii) Osun State University Osogbo (UNIOSUN) also accepts ‘A’ level pass in Botany, ND and approved equivalents (Lower credit). (xxiii) Crawford University Igbesa accepts ND (upper credit) or HND in relevant courses is acceptable. O/L credit in either Physics or Mathematics in addition to ‘A’ level passes in Chemistry and Biology is acceptable. (xxiv) Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki accepts three ‘A’ level passes in Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics or Physics

(xxv) Bells University of Technology, Otta accepts (a) Two A’ level passes chosen from Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology. (b) ND/HND in related field plus UTME requirement.

(xxvi) Western Delta University, Oghara Delta State accepts (a) Two ‘A’ level passes obtained at one sittings from Chemistry, Biology, Physics and Mathematics in Addition to O’ Level requirements (credit passes in English Language, Mathematics, Chemistry, Biology and Physics. (b)) ND (Upper Credit) in relevant discipline (Food Chemistry, Brewing Science, Food Technology, Science Laboratory Technology) in addition to O’ Level requirements. HND (Lower Credit) in relevant discipline. NCE (Credit) in Biology or Chemistry

(xxvii) Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji requires Chemistry and any other one from Biology, Physics and Mathematics.

(xxviii) Rhema University, Obeama-Asa – Rivers State accepts National Diploma in Chemistry, Food Science and Technology or NCE in Biology/Chemistry.

(xxx) Evangel University, Akaeze same as in Chemistry. (xxxi) Kwara State University, Ilorin (KWASU) accepts a) Two G.C.E. A/L or its equivalent, one of which must be in relevant field. b) ND with minimum of upper credit in relevant subject; c) HND with lower credit in the relevant field.

(xxxii) Ondo State University of Science and Technology Okitipupa (OSUSTECH) accepts a) Two A’ level passes in Chemistry Biology or Physics. b) National Diploma (ND) with Distinction and Credit passes in relevant subjects.

(xxxiii) University of Agriculture, Makurdi requires ‘A’ Level GCE passes in Biology Chemistry and either Physics or Mathematics MUST be obtained. NCE, ND, and HND graduates in Science/ Technology with credit level passes in the relevant subjects must be considered in addition to UTME requirements.

(xxxiv) Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB) accepts: a) ND (Upper Credit) in Analytical and Industrial Chemistry, Science Laboratory Technology or related fields. b) NCE (Credit) in Biology or Chemistry. c) Two A’ level credit passes in Chemistry, Biology/Botany/ Zoology, Physics and Mathematics.

(xxxv) Mcpherson University, Seriki Sotayo, Ajebo accepts ND (upper credit) or HND( lower credit) in relevant courses is acceptable. O/L credit in either Physics or Mathematics in addition to ‘A’ level passes in Chemistry and Biology is acceptable.

(xxxvi) Caleb University, Lagos – Same as Microbiology and Industrial Biotechnology. (xxxvii) Umar Musa Yar’ Adua University Katsina (UMYU) accepts Candidates with GCE ‘A’ level, IJMB, with a minimum of 9 points. A-level Candidates must have Chemistry. NCE candidates must have Chemistry and Biology. (xxxix) Southwestern University, Oku Owa – Same as Microbiology.

(xl) University of Lagos (UNILAG) accepts; (a) Very good passes in the following three JUPEB/A-LEVEL subjects: Biology, Chemistry and Physics (b) Candidates must satisfy O/Level requirement

(xli) Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja accepts any two A’ level passes in Science subjects. Also accepts ND/HND (lower credit) or NCE (merit) in relevant fields.

(xlii) Kings University, Ode Omu (UNIKINGS) requires two ‘A’ level passes in Chemistry and any one of Physics, Mathematics or Biology.

What is WAEC, NECO and GCE Special Special consideration (Waiver) to study Biochemistry?
(i) Federal University of Technology, Akure requires five ‘O’ Level credit passes at a maximum of two sittings, which must include: English Language, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology or Agricultural Science.

(ii) Obafemi Awolowo University,Ile-Ife (OAU) accepts Physics or Biology.

(iii) Abia State University, Uturu requires a credit in Physics.

(iv) Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Imo State University, Owerri (IMSU) and Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli accept a pass in ‘O’ level English Language.

(v) Michael Okpara University of Agricultural Umudike same as in Food Science and Technology

(vi) Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki accepts Agric. Sci in lieu of Biology and a pass in Physics.

(vii) Niger Delta University Yenagoa (NDU) requires the five ‘O’ level credit passes in not more than two sittings.

(viii) Cross River State University of Science &Technology, Calabar (CRUTECH)- Same as Biological Science

(ix) Ajayi Crowther University, Ibadan (ACU) requires five (5) credit passes must include: English

language, Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, and Biology at one sittings or six (6) credits at not more than two sittings

(x) University of Maiduguri (UNIMAID) accepts SSCE passes in English Language and Mathematics.

(xi) Crescent University (CUAB) accepts credit pass in Agric. Science in lieu of Biology.

(xii) Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki requires credits in Mathematics or Physics

(xiii) Bells University of Technology, Otta requires five SSCE Credit passes in English Language, Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, Biology/ Geography/ Further Mathematics/ Agricultural Science.

(xiv) Redeemer’s University, Mowe requires Five ‘O’ Level credit passes in English Language, Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics and Biology/ Agricultural Science.

(xv) Western Delta University, Oghara Delta State requires five SSCE credit passes which must include Chemistry, English Language, Chemistry, Biology Mathematics and Physics.

(xvi) Plateau State University Bokkos (PLASU) – Same as in Chemistry.

(xvii) Godfrey Okoye University, Ugwuomu-Nike – Enugu State accepts credit pass in any other Science subject in lieu of Physics. (xviii) Kwara State University, Ilorin (KWASU) accepts credit passes in Further mathematics and Agricultural Science.

(xix) Renaissance University, Enugu requires the credit passes at not more than two sittings.

(xx) University of Agriculture, Makurdi – Candidates seeking admission into any of these Programmes must possess five (5) credit passes which MUST be from one examination body (i.e. either WAEC or NECO) and obtained at NOT more than two (2) sittings. The Department does not accept the combination of both WAEC and NECO. Students of the University of Agriculture, Makurdi Pre-degree Remedial Science Programme who pass their end of session examinations are considered or admission on the condition that they also pass UTME. NOTE: Agricultural Science and Health Science shall NOT be accepted in place of Biology. Further Mathematics shall NOT be accepted in place of Physics or Mathematics.

(xxi) Samuel Adegboyega University, Ogwa accepts credit pass in Technical Drawing, Agricultural Science or Geography in lieu of Physics

(xxii) Umar Musa Yar’ Adua University Katsina (UMYU) requires five credit passes in not more than two sittings.

(xxiii) Southwestern University, Oku Owa – Same as Microbiology.

(xxiv) Landmark University, Omu-Aran accepts in lieu of Physics credit pass in any of the following subjects: Further Mathematics, Technical Drawing, Agricultural Science, Food and Nutrition.

(xxv) Sokoto State University accepts HND (lower credit) or ND (Upper credit) in Science Laboratory Technology, Food Science Technology or its equivalents.

(xxvi) Oduduwa University, Ipetumodu – Osun State accepts credit pass in Agricultural Science or Health Science in place of Biology.

What is JAMB UTME Special consideration (Waiver) to study Biochemistry?
(i) Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Ekiti State University and River State University of Science and Technology (RSUST) require Mathematics.

(ii) Obafemi Awolowo University,Ile-Ife (OAU) requires Chemistry, Mathematics and either Biology or Physics.

(iii) University of Ilorin (UNILORIN) does not accept Mathematics.

(iv) University of Lagos (UNILAG), Salem University, Lokoja, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Ondo State University of Science and Technology Okitipupa (OSUSTECH), Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ondo State University of Science and Technology Okitipupa (OSUSTECH), Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria and University of Benin (UNIBEN) require Biology, Chemistry and Physics.

(v) Bowen University, Iwo requires Chemistry and any two of Physics, Mathematics and Biology.

(vi) Ajayi Crowther University, Ibadan (ACU) – Same as Chemistry.

(vii) Bells University of Technology, Otta does not require Biology in lieu of Mathematics.

(viii) Western Delta University, Oghara Delta State requires Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics.

(x) Federal University of Technology, Akure requires Chemistry, Biology/Agricultural Science and Mathematics/Physics.

(xi) Kwara State University, Ilorin (KWASU) requires Chemistry, Biology plus any one of Physics, Mathematics and Further Mathematics or Geography.

(xii) Crescent University (CUAB) and Samuel Adegboyega University, Ogwa require Biology, Chemistry and Physics/Mathematics.

(xii) Ondo State University of Science and Technology Okitipupa (OSUSTECH) requires Chemistry, Biology and Physics.

(xiii) Southwestern University, Oku Owa – Same as Microbiology.

(xiv) Osun State University Osogbo (UNIOSUN) requires Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics.

(xv) Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja accepts any three Science subjects.

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